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Dr. Dianna Thomback, Professor at the University of Colorado, who is an expert on white bark Pine and it's partners in the ecosystem. She says she was surprised by the extremely old white bark pines (1000 years old) that had been killed by the pine beetle. She also talks about the Clark's Nutcracker, which disperses the seed for the tree. She explains how the bird caches the seeds. She says the birds are living gps units, with phenomenal memories, remembering as many as 10,000 seed caches to retrieve in the winter. She says the white bark pine and Clark's Nutcracker that have co-existed for hundreds of thousands of years. She says the beetles and blister rust threaten to end that unique ecoystem, which also includes grizzly bears, which eat the pine seeds in squirrel middens. She says the beetle outbreak is driven by climate change.

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